Define offer or proposal and Explain the legal rules as to a valid offer also discuss the law relating to communication of offer and revocation of offer

According to section 2(a) of Indian contract act, 1872, defines offer as “when one person signifies to another his willingness to do (or) to abstain from doing anything with a view to obtaining the assent of that otherto, such act (or) abstinence, he his said to make a proposal”.
Legal rules (OR) Essential elements of a valid offer / proposal:-

  •  Offer must be capable of creating legal relations: A social invitation, even if it is accepted does not create legal relationship because it is not so intended to create legal relationship. Therefore, an offer must be such as would result in a valid contract when it is accepted.
  •  Offer must be certain, definite and not vague: If the terms of the offer are vague, indefinite, and uncertain, it does not amount to a lawful offer and its acceptance cannot create any contractual relationship.
  • Offer must be communicated: An offer is effective only when it is communicated to the person whom it is made unless an offer is communicated; there is no acceptance and no contract. An acceptance of an offer, in ignorance of the offer can never treated as acceptance and does not create any right on the acceptor.


Facts: ‘S’ sent his servant, ‘L’ to trace his missing nephew. He than announced that anybody would be entitled to a certain reward. ‘L’ traced the boy in ignorance of his announcement. Subsequently, when he came to know of his reward, he claimed it.
Judgment: He was not entitled fro the reward.

  • Offer must be distinguished from an invitation to offer: A proposer/offer must be distinguished from an invitation to offer. In the case of invitation to offer, the person sending out the invitation does not make any offer, but only invites the party to make an offer. Such invitations for offers are not
    offers in the eyes of law and do not become agreement by the acceptance of such offers.

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