Planning and development of Management Information Systems

Information is a corporate resource, as important as the capital, labor, know-how etc. and is being used for decision-making. Its quality, therefore, is required to be very high. Low quality information would adversely affect the organizational performance as it affects decision-making. The quality of information is the result of the quality of the input data, processing design, system design, system and procedures which generate such a data, and the management of the data processing function. Quality, unlike any other product, is not an absolute concept. Its level is determined with reference to the context and its use, and the user. Perfect quality just as perfect information is non-achievable and has cost-benefit implications. The quality of the parameters is assured if the following steps are taken.

  • All the input is processed and controlled, as input and process design.
  • All updating and corrections are completed before the data processing begins.
  • Inputs (transactions, documents, fields and records) are subject to validity checks.
  • The access to the data files is protected and secured through an authorization scheme
  • Intermediate processing checks are introduced to ensure that the complete data is processed right through, i.e. run to run controls.
  • Due attention is given to the proper file selection in terms of data, periods and soon.
  • Backup of the data and files are taken to safeguard corruption or loss of data.
  • The system audit is conducted from time to time to ensure that the information system specifications are not violated.
  • The system modifications are approved by following a set procedure which begins with authorization of a change to its implementation followed by an audit.
  • Systems are developed with a standard specification of design and development.
  • Information system processing is controlled through programmed control, process control and access control.
  • Ensure MIS model confirms consistency to business plan satisfying information needs to achieve business goals.

The quality parameters which are generally considered are shown in the table.

  Individual differences  Explanation  Effect on information processing  Examples
Locus of control Internal or external to the situation.The degree of perception in assessing the control which is internal to the organization or external to the organization.More information gathering and Analysis, if internal. .The production decisions, selection of tools and materials etc.
Personal dogmatism.The degree of faith in Beliefs, opinions and past experience.Low dogmatism, then More information collection and Processing.The pricing, advertising in a Competitive Environment.
Risk propensity.The ability to take the risk. .Higher, then more Information gathering and analysis.The top management Decision-making in a strategic planning.
Tolerance for Ambiguity. .Level of clarity required in the information. The Ability to read through the information.Tight tolerance then more information Collection and analysis.Manager Constantly asking for more Information.
Manipulative intelligence. .The ability to manipulate the data and information vis-à-vis the stored information and Knowledge.High ability, then less information and more Self analysis.Experienced and Skillful managers rely on the manipulative Intelligence.
Experience in Decision-making.Extent of experience at particular level of decision makingHigh, then correct filtering of data and appropriate choice of Decision making process. .The managers with a Wide experience the different fields of management call for precise and less but pertinent information.
Knowledge of the Task, tools and technology. .The extent of knowledge in the application of the tools and technology.Higher, then less Information relevant to and tools correct analysis.The Technocrat scientists, and managers of technology have definite information

The quality of these important parameters is ensured by conducting a proper systems analysis, designing a suitable information system and ensuring its maintenance from time to time, and also subjecting it to audit checks to ensure the system integrity The assurance of quality is a continuing function and needs to be evolved over a period and requires to be monitored properly.

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