Explain Job Analysis

A defined data collection and analysis procedure through which information about job tasks and job requirements are obtained.

Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.

Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these  positions and the characteristics of the people who should be hired for them .The analysis  produces  information  on  job requirements, which is then used for developing  job  descriptions (what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job).

Six Steps in JOB Analysis

Six Steps in JOB Analysis

Step 1

Identify the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the types of data you collect and how you collect them. Some data collection techniques like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails and what his responsibilities are – are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employees for the job.

Step 2

Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Organization charts  show how the job in question relates to other jobs and where it fits in the overall organization. The chart should identify the title of each position and, by means of its interconnecting lines, show who reports to whom and with whom the job incumbent is expected to communicate. 

Step 3

Select representative positions to be analyzed. This is done when many similar jobs are to be analyzed and it is too time-consuming to analyze, say, the jobs of all assembly workers.

Step 4 

Next actually analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. For this, you would use one or more of the job analysis techniques explained in this lesson.

Step 5 

Review the information with job incumbents. The job analysis information should be verified with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. This will help to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. This “review” step can also help gain the employee’s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of his or her job activities. 

Step 6 

Develop a job description and job specification. A job description and a job specification are usually two concrete products of the job analysis.

The job description is a, written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, as well as important features of the job such as working conditions and safety hazards.

The job specification summarizes the personal qualities, skills, and background required for getting the job done; it may be either a separate document or on the same document as the job description.

Why JOB Analysis? Job analysis is a systematic procedure for studying jobs to determine their various elements and requirements.

The job analysis for a particular position typically consists of two parts. 

A job description is a list of the elements that make up a particular job. 

A job specification is a list of the qualifications required to perform particular job.

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