Methods and Techniques of training

On-job training

“Training that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal workstation of the trainee- although some instruction may be provided in a special training area on site – and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague spends significant time with a trainee to  teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance.”


  1. Tailor-made course content with use of REAL company situations/examples.
  2. It is usually less expensive than off-job training
  3. Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used
  4. Trainees learn more rapidly


  1. Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time
  2. Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices
  3. A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be produced.
  4. Valuable equipment may be damaged.
  5. Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful, i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers.

Off-job training


  1. A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training.
  2. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available.
  3. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages.
  4. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life.
  5. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is more self-contained
  6. Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies.



  1. Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment.
  2. No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships.
  3. Can be more expensive carrying out the training

Everyone involved in the training should be informed well in advance of the training session(s).  It is equally important that the person(s) delivering the training – whether in-job or off-job training – are well versed in what has to be achieved and the most suitable techniques to adopt.

On the Job Training Methods.

  • Orientation training
  • Job-instruction training
  • Apprentice training
  • Internships and assistantships
  • Job rotation
  • Coaching

Off-the –job training: are used away from workplaces.

  1. Vestibule
  2. Lecture
  3. Special study
  4. Films
  5. Television
  6. Conference or discussion
  7. Case study
  8. Role playing
  9. Simulation
  10. Programmed instruction

11 Laboratory training

  1. Vestibule Training: This training method attempt to duplicate on-the-job-situation in a company classroom. It is a classroom training that is often imported with the help of the equipment and machines, which are identical with those in use in the place of work.  This technique enables the trainees to concentrate on learning new skill rather than on performing on actual job. This type of training is efficient to train semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of work at the same time.  Often used to train – bank tellers, inspectors, machine operators, typists etc.  In this, training is generally given in the form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role-play etc.
  2. Demonstrations And Example: In this type of training method trainer describes and displays something, as & when he teaches an employee, how to do something by actually performing the activity himself & going on explaining why & what he is doing. This method is very effective in teaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job than tell him or give him instruction about a particular job. This training is done by combination with lectures, pictures, text materials etc.
  3. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. The lecture is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low.

This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though its application is restricted in training factory employees. Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication. There is no feedback from the audience. Continued lecturing method can be made effective it if is combined with other methods of training.

  1. Audio-visuals: Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, video-types and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time.

Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training groups. But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience.

  1. Programmed Instruction (PI): This is method where training is offer without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine.

PI involves:

  1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner
  2. Allowing the person to respond
  3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers
  4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same.
  5. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): this is an extension of the PI method. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee’s progress and needs.

CAI training program can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained.

This training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they  want, thus get training when they prefer.

  1. Apprenticeship: This method of training is usually done in crafts, trades and in technical areas. It is the oldest and most commonly used method, if the training is relatively for a longer period.  Here a major part of training is spent on the job productive work.  Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule, which provide for efficient training in trade skills.
  2. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. Simulations present likely problem situations and decision alternatives to the trainee. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study, role-playing and vestibule training.
  3. Conference: In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. It is a basic to most participative group centered methods of developments.  This emphasis on small group discussion, on organized subject matter and on the active participation of the members involved.

There are three types of conferences,

Direct discussion: – Here trainer guides the discussion in such a way that the facts, principles or concepts are explained.

* Training Conference: – The instructor gets the group to pool its knowledge and past experience and brings different points of view to bear on the problem.

* Seminar Conference: – In this method instructor defines the problem, encourages and ensures the full participation in the discussion.

  1. Case Studies: This method is developed in 1800S At the Harvard Law School. The case study is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best be attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases.  When the trainees are given cases to analyse, they are asked to identify the problem and recommend tentative solution for it.

The case study is primarily useful as a training technique for supervisors and is specially valuable as a technique of developing discussion-making skills, and for broadening the prospective of the trainee.

In case study method the trainee is expected to master the facts, should acquainted with the content of the case, define the objective sought in dealing with the issues in the  case, identify the problem, develop alternative courses of action, define the controls needed to make the action effective and role play the action to test its effectiveness and find conditions that may limit it.

  1. Role Playing: In role-playing trainees act out the given role as they would be in stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play before the nest of the class. Here role players are informed of a situation and of the respective roles they have to pay.  Sometimes after the preliminary planning,

The situation is acted out by the role players. This method primarily involves employee-employer relationship – Hiring, firing, discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview etc.

  1. Programmed Instructions: This method involves a sequence of steps that are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of desired operation or series of operations.

This method involves breaking information down into meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning.  The programme involves– presenting questions, facts or problems to trainees to utilize the information given and the trainee instantly receive feedback on the basis of the accuracy of his answers.

To be really effective, the training methods must fit in training programme needs to find out how effective the methods are in accomplishing their goals of modifying skills, attitudes and ultimate behaviour.

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